What are the Differences Between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer
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Power transformer and distribution transformer may sound like the same type of transformer but they are very different. Before discussing their differences, let’s look into what transformer really is.
A transformer is a stationary electrical device which works on Faraday’s law of mutual induction to transfer electrical energy between two circuits. These two circuits are electrically isolated but magnetically coupled together.
A transformer either decreases or increases the AC voltage & current levels.
Such type of transformer is used in power generating station for transmission of electricity through power lines.
The problem with high power transmission is that there are significant line losses which depend on current i.e. I2R. To reduce these line losses the voltage is increased, subsequently decreasing the current. All this is done using a power transformer.
These power transformers are huge in size having a complex design. They operate at very high voltage with ratings above 200 MVA. The operating voltage levels of a power transformer are above 33 kV and are not used for consumption but only for power transmission.
These transformers are used for stepping down (decreasing) the line voltages to provide for domestic or commercial use. These are the transformers used at the end of a power grid line that you usually see on a pole.
They are low rating transformer usually less 50 MVA with operating voltage ratings less than 33 kV. They are smaller in size having a simple design which can be easily installed.
Their efficiency remains lower than 70% because they do not operate at full load.
Differences Between Power Transformer & Distribution Transformer
|Power Transformer||Distribution Transformer|
|Power Transformers are used in the transmission network for decreasing the line losses during power transmission without any consumer at its receiving end.||Distribution transformers are used for converting high voltages into low voltages for domestic or commercial use.|
|They operate on very high voltage rating above 33 kV & has power rating above 200 MVA||
They operate at low voltage rating lower than 33 kV & low power rating below 50 MVA
|Power transformer can be step up or step down transformer, used at the ends of transmission lines.||Distribution transformer is a step-down transformer that decreases high voltage to low voltage (120/240 volts) for consumption.|
|They are designed to operate at maximum load all day.||There do not operate at full load all the time.|
|Its efficiency remains at 100% because of full load usage.||They tend to operate at efficiency between 60 to 70% as they never operate at max load.|
|They have constant copper & core losses because they operate at max load all day.||Its losses vary because the load keeps changing all day.|
|They are heavy and huge in size with a complex design.||They are smaller in size & have a simple design which can be easily installed|
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