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Types of Electrical Machines

What are the Different Types of Electrical Machines

Electrical Machine:

A device capable of inter-conversion between electrical energy and mechanical energy is called Electrical Machine.

Types of Electrical Machines

In simple words, an electrical machine converts electrical energy into mechanical energy & vice versa. A transformer is also an Electrical machine with an exception that it converts voltage & current levels.

Types of Electrical Machines:

Electrical machines are classified into two main types i.e.

  • Stationary Electrical Machines
  • Dynamic Electrical Machines

Stationary Electrical Machines:

A stationary electrical machine is such kind of machine which does not have any moving parts & they remain stationary throughout its operation.

Transformer:

A transformer is a stationary electrical machine, which does not have any moving parts. It is a machine because there is a conversion between electrical & magnetic energy between the windings of the transformer.

It converts electrical energy into magnetic energy & again into electrical energy with increasing or decreasing the AC voltage/current level & maintaining the electrical frequency constant.

It has two windings i.e. Primary & secondary winding. Both winding are wounded around a stationary iron core.

The varying AC current is applied to the primary winding, which creates a varying magnetic flux in the core of the transformer. This varying magnetic flux induces an EMF in the secondary winding of the transformer, resulting in an AC current at the output.

Dynamic Electrical Machines:

Such type of machines consists of moving parts as well as stationary parts.

 There are two types of Dynamic electrical machines i.e.

  • Electrical Motor
  • Electrical Generator
Electrical Motor:

A motor is a type of dynamic machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Electrical motors have a moving part called rotor & a stationary part called stator.

Electrical motors generate a mechanical force due to the interaction between the magnetic field and current in a conductor.

There are two main types of Electrical motors i.e. DC motor & AC motors.

DC Motors:

Wherever a current-carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force. The DC motor operates on this principle. The rotor is made up of multiple loops of conductors, which is supplied by a DC source. The rotor is placed in a magnetic field. The conductor experiences a force due to which the rotor rotates.

AC Motors:

In AC motors, the stator is made up of winding which is connected to the AC voltage supply. It creates a rotating magnetic field.

The rotor is made up of a conductor which can easily conduct electricity. The rotor is placed inside the stator.

Unlike DC motor, the electrical supply is connected with the stator of AC motors.

Due to the rotating magnetic field produced by stator winding, an emf is induced in the rotor. This, in turn, creates its own magnetic field opposing the stator’s magnetic field according to Lenz’s law. This magnetic field tries to cancel out the stator’s rotating magnetic field by rotating the rotor with exact same rotation speed.

Electrical Generators:

Generators are such types of electrical machines which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Its operation is exactly opposite to the electrical motor. According to faraday’s law, a conductor placed inside a varying magnetic field will experience an induced emf. In other words, moving a conductor in a static magnetic field will induce emf in the conductor.

The rotor is rotated inside a magnetic field by any means known as a prime mover. The resultant induced current (electrical energy) flows out through the conductor.

   

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