What is an Ideal Transformer And Its Characteristics?
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Before understanding what an ideal transformer is, let look into what a real transformer actually is.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another while increasing or decreasing the voltage/Current & maintaining the frequency constant.
A transformer works on the principle of Faraday’s law of induction. A Varying current in the primary winding causes varying magnetic flux, which causes an induced EMF in the secondary coil.
A real (practical) transformer has some losses in the form of core & copper losses. The windings have resistance & reactance which causes some loss known as copper loss & the core has Eddy current & hysteresis loss, collectively known as core loss.
Due to these transformer losses, the output power of the transformer is always less than the input power.
Such type of transformer whose output power is equal to the input power is called an Ideal Transformer.
In such a case, the efficiency of the transformer is 100%. it means there is no power loss inside the transformer.
Characteristics of an Ideal Transformer:
Following are the characteristics that define the said transformer:
- The power delivered by the transformer is equal to the power supplied to the transformer which means 100% efficiency.
- There is no winding resistance & reactance, which eliminates the copper losses inside a transformer.
- There are no core losses i.e. there is no hysteresis loss or eddy current loss.
- There is no leakage flux; the entire magnetic flux is linked through the core.
An ideal transformer is not a practical transformer & it is considered as an imaginary transformer for educational purposes. It is not impossible to realize an actual transformer having efficiency somewhere near an ideal transformer.
Development in technology has given us such gadgets that were considered as “mere magic tricks” a few decades ago. There are researches happening on superconductor that conduct current with 100% efficiency. Maybe if we are lucky enough, we will see it one day in our near future.