Types of Road:
A road is a route or way on land between two places that has been constructed or improved to permit travel by foot or by some form of transportation (including bus, cars vehicles, cart, bicycle and horse etc.). there are a lot of different types of road in civil construction field.
Table of Contents
1 Based on Different Factors:
- 1.1 Based on Materials:
- 1.2 Based on Location and Function:
- 1.3 Based on Traffic Volume:
- 1.4 Based on Economy:
- 1.5 Based on Traffic Type:
- 1.6 Based on Rigidity
- 1.7 Based on Topography
- 2 Share this:
Based on Different Factors:
Roads having various types of road based on different factors that is given below:
- Location & function
- Traffic volume
- Traffic type
Based on Materials:
The roads having different types based on materials used in construction of road. The roads types based on materials are given below:
- Earthen roads
- Gravel roads
- Murrum roads
- Kankar roads
- Water bond macadam (WBM) roads
- Bituminous roads
- Concrete roads
In this type of roads, it is place with soil. Earthen roads are economical than all types of roads. it is constructed for little traffic or countryside areas usually earthen road is low quality roads. In earthen road a perfect drainage system should be constructed that reflects good performance for a more duration.
This type of road is also low class roads, but earthen roads are good when compared with earthen roads. In this road gravel and earth soil is laid and then compacted it is used as pavement material in this road.
Murrum material is get from the decomposition of igneous rocks by weathering agencies. The Lateritic soil is called as murrum This murrum is used to make roads known as Murrum roads.
Kankar is a material that is impure or unclean form of limestone. This type of roads is constructed where lime is available in a valid amount. These roads are low class and low performance roads.
Water Bond Macadam (WBM) Roads:
Water Bound Macadam roads include gravel in its base. The aggregates are laid and spread on the surface after sprinkling water it is compacted. Water Bond Macadam (WBM) roads give good performance than earthen roads, gravel roads, murrum roads, and Kankar roads.
Water Bond Macadam (WBM) roads are place as layers of about 10 cm thickness of each layer. This road is very rough and may collapse directly under load of traffic.
This is most common type of roads and it is widely used in this universe. bitumen road very economical and good for driving. The thickness of this roads is depending on the subgrade of road.
Bitumen road is prepared from the mixture of bitumen and gravels or stone aggregates. These all materials are very cheaper and available everywhere in the world.
In this road Cement is used to build the pavements. Concrete roads are famous and very costly than bitumen, Kankar, water bond macadam gravel earthen and murrum roads. Concrete roads are not flexible, so the cost of maintenance. Of concrete road is very low.
This road is good for high traffic areas. They are constructed with joints and it takes much time when constructing this road.
Based on Location and Function:
- National highways
- State highways
- District roads
- Rural roads or village roads
It is the main road that is constructed to connect all big cities to the capital of the country. National highways run everywhere in the country and major cities. The minimal two lane road is constructed for national highways
It is the second main roads that is constructed to connect important parts of the state. This type of road connects to the national highways
It is constructed within the cities and connect markets and production areas to state and national highways. There are mainly two types of this roads that is given below:
- Major district roads
- Minor district roads
Major District Roads:
This type of road is used to connect neighboring district with main parts of the area
Minor District Roads:
minor district roads are place within the region.
Rural roads are also called village road. Rural roads connect the villages also connect nearby town and district roads. Typically, low class roads are constructed as village roads due to low traffic volume.
Based on Traffic Volume:
- Light traffic roads
- Medium traffic roads
- High traffic roads
Light Traffic Roads:
This road carry 400 automobiles on an average per day is called light traffic roads.
Medium Traffic Roads:
This road carry 400 to 1000 automobiles on an average per day is called medium traffic roads
High Traffic Roads:
This road carry more than 1000 automobiles on an average per day is called high traffic roads
Based on Economy:
- Low-cost roads
- Medium cost roads
- High-cost roads
Low Cost Roads:
The roads which is constructed on low budget is called low cost roads.
Medium Cost Roads:
The roads which is constructed on medium budget is called low cost roads
High cost roads:
The roads which is constructed on high budget is called low cost roads
Based on Traffic Type:
- Pedestrian ways
- Cycle tracks
This type of road is mostly constructed for pedestrians, and no automobiles are allowed in this pedestrian way.
It is also known as bicycle tracks. It is constructed on both sides of the pavement for cycle and bicycle therefore they can travel safely.
It is also called expressways. Only a few automobiles are available to use motorway road. The vehicle which can transport with high speed are allowable in this road. Motorways makes move rapid and give relief for high speed cars or automobiles.
Based on Rigidity
- Flexible roads
- Rigid roads
This pavement is constructed from bitumen’s or asphalt Flexible roads consist of four layers and require proper maintenance or it will crumble due to heavy load traffic. All type of roads are flexible roads except concrete roads a flexible pavement can be defined as a pavement layer include of a combination of aggregates and bitumen, it is heated and blended precisely and then put and compacted on a bed of granular layer. It transfers the load to sub grade through combination of layers. subgrade work as a foundation for the road.
The four layers of flexible pavement is given below:
- Sub Grade
- Sub Base
- Base course
- Surface course
Rigid pavement is constructed from reinforced concrete Rigid roads consist of three layers they are non-flexible roads concrete roads are the best example of the rigid roads. a rigid pavement can be defined as a pavement layer include of a combination of aggregates and cement, it is blended precisely and then put and compacted on a bed.
The three layers of rigid road is given below:
- Sub grade
- Base course
- Surface course
Based on Topography
- Plain area road
- Hilly area roads
Plain Area Road:
This type of roads is provided on leveled surface is called plain area roads.
Hilly Area Roads:
This type of Road is provided in hilly zones are known as hilly area roads. It is also called ghat roads. usually, hilly area roads are constructed around the hill in a spiral shape.
You may also read:
- Types of Beam
- Types of Concrete and their Uses, Classification and Properties
- Types of Loads on Structure